Saturday, August 22, 2020

Strengths, Weaknesses and Plan of Action of an Analysis Essay

Qualities, Weaknesses and Plan of Action of an Analysis - Essay Example I have likewise had the option to utilize an assortment of sentence structures like straightforward, compound and complex sentence structures which help articulate my musings in a legitimate way. Extremely short sections keep the peruser intrigued. I am additionally ready to, as it appears by my draft, examine both the sides of the issue so the peruser might have the option to show signs of improvement thought regarding the positive and negative parts of the current issue. It appears that I am effective in the introduction of my draft as the tone continues as before and all printed proof is appropriately refered to. It appears that I have been not able to indicate a particular crowd for my content. This may have prompted some disarray for the peruser as to for whom the content is truly proposed for. The content isn't befuddling in itself, yet at the same time, there ought to have been crowd detail. I have not utilized any analogies. The content is by all accounts not so much abstract but rather more philosophical, which is something that numerous perusers who are searching for some insightful content may get frustrated about. Additionally, I have not utilized any outer source which may have been important to back up my sentiment. I have summed up the issue as per my own supposition, and there is no outer source to help my contention. Other than these focuses, I have not come to know any perceptible shortcoming in the structure, design and introduction in my content by method of my instructor’s and peer’s input. The main thing I have to modify is that I should consolidate some outer sources in my content to back up my contention. I think it is significant as one can give more proof to help one’s perspective. This includes research, and I should have the option to do this by searching up for abstract sources in the library and over the web. I should, be that as it may, first counsel my teacher to decide if an outer source is really required in any case. The second thing that I have to think upon is indicating my crowd.

Wednesday, July 15, 2020

13 rules you did not learn in school

13 rules you did not learn in school Here are some basic rules that children should be learning in  school, but unfortunately dont. Not all of these have to do with academics.Rule #1: Life is not fair. Get used to it. The average teen-ager uses the  phrase, Its not fair 8.6 times a day.Rule #2: The real world wont care as much about your self-esteem as much  as your school does. Itll expect you to accomplish something before you  feel good about yourself. This may come as a shock. Usually, when inflated  self-esteem meets reality, kids complain its not fair. Rule #3: Sorry, you wont make $40,000 a year right out of high school.  And you wont be a vice president or have a car phone either. You may even  have to wear a uniform that doesnt have a label.Rule #4: If you think your teacher is tough, wait until you get a boss. He  doesnt have tenure, so he tends to be a bit edgier. When you screw up, hes  not going to ask you how you feel about it.Rule #5: Flipping burgers is not beneath your dignity. Your grand-parents  had a different word of burger flipping. They called it opportunity. They  werent embarrassed making minimum wage either. They would have been  embarrassed to sit around talking about Kurt Cobain all weekend.Rule #6: Its not your parents fault. If you screw up, you are  responsible. This is the flip side of Its my life, and Youre not the  boss of me, and other eloquent proclamations of your generation. When you  turn 18, its on your dime. Dont whine about it, or youll sound like a  baby boomer.Rule #7: Your school may have done away with winners and losers. Life  hasnt. In some schools, theyll give you as many times as you want to get  the right answer. Failing grades have been abolished and class  valedictorians scrapped, lest anyones feelings be hurt. Effort is as  important as results. This, of course, bears not the slightest resemblance  to anything in real life.Rule #8: Life is not divided into semesters, and you dont get summers  off. Not even Easter break. They expect you to show up every day. For eight  hours. And you dont get a new life every 10 weeks. It just goes on and on.  While were at it, very few jobs are interesting in fostering your  self-expression or helping you find yourself. Fewer still lead to  self-realization.Rule #9: Television is not real life. Your life is not a sitcom. Your  problems will not all be solved in 30 minutes, minus time for commercials.  In real life, people actually have to leave the coffee shop to go to jobs.  Your friends will not be as perky or pliable as Jennifer Aniston.Rule #10: Be nice to nerds. You may end up working for them. We all  could.Rule #11: Smoking does not make you look cool. It makes you look moronic.  Next time youre out cruising, watch an 11-year-old with a butt in his  mouth. Thats what you look like to anyone over 20. Ditto for expressing  yourself with purple hair and/or pierced body parts.Rule #12: You are not immortal. If you are under the  impression that living fast, dying young and leaving a b eautiful corpse is  romantic, you obviously havent seen one of your peers at room temperature  lately.Rule #13: Enjoy your youth time while you can. Sure parents are a pain, school is a  bother and life is depressing but someday youll realize how wonderful it  was to be a kid. Maybe you should start now.By Charles J. Sykes Printed in San Diego Union Tribune September 19, 1996

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Human Liver Anatomy and Function

The liver is an important vital organ that also happens to be the largest internal organ in the body. Weighing between 3 and 3.5 pounds, the liver is located in the upper right area of the abdominal cavity and is responsible for hundreds of different functions. Some of these functions include nutrient metabolism, detoxification of harmful substances, and protecting the body from germs. The liver has a unique ability to regenerate itself. This ability makes it possible for individuals to donate part of their liver for transplantation. Liver Anatomy The liver is a reddish-brown organ that is located below the diaphragm and superior to other abdominal cavity organs such as the stomach, kidneys, gallbladder, and intestines. The most prominent feature of the liver is its larger right lobe and smaller left lobe. These two main lobes are separated by a band of connective tissue. Each liver lobe is internally composed of thousands of smaller units called lobules. Lobules are small liver segments containing arteries, veins, sinusoids, bile ducts, and liver cells. Liver tissue is composed of two main types of cells. Hepatocytes are the most numerous type of liver cells. These epithelial cells are responsible for most of the functions performed by the liver. Kupffer cells are immune cells that are also found in the liver. They are thought to be a type of macrophage that rids the body of pathogens and old red blood cells. The liver also contains numerous bile ducts, which drain bile produced by the liver into larger hepatic ducts. These ducts join to form the common hepatic duct. The cystic duct extending from the gallbladder joins the common hepatic duct to form the common bile duct. Bile from the liver and gallbladder drain into the common bile duct and are delivered to the upper portion of the small intestines (duodenum). Bile is a dark greenish or yellow fluid produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. It aids in the digestion of fats and helps eliminate toxic wastes. Liver Function The liver performs a number of vital functions in the body. A major function of the liver is to process substances in the blood. The liver receives blood from organs including the stomach, small intestines, spleen, pancreas, and gallbladder through the hepatic portal vein. The liver then processes, filters, and detoxifies the blood before sending it back to the heart via the inferior vena cava. The liver has a digestive system, immune system, endocrine system, and exocrine functions. A number of important liver functions are listed below. 1) Fat Digestion A key function of the liver is the digestion of fats. Bile produced by the liver breaks down fat in the small intestines so that it can be used for energy. 2) Metabolism The liver metabolizes carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids in the blood that are initially processed during digestion. Hepatocytes store glucose obtained from the break down of carbohydrates in the foods we eat. Excess glucose is removed from the blood and stored as glycogen in the liver. When glucose is needed, the liver breaks down glycogen into glucose and releases the sugar into the blood. The liver metabolizes amino acids from digested proteins. In the process, toxic ammonia is produced which the liver converts to urea. Urea is transported to the blood and is passed to the kidneys where it is excreted in urine. The liver processes fats to produce other lipids including phospholipids and cholesterol. These substances are necessary for cell membrane production, digestion, bile acid formation, and hormone production. The liver also metabolizes hemoglobin, chemicals, medications, alcohol and other drugs in the blood. 3) Nutrient Storage The liver stores nutrients obtained from the blood for use when needed. Some of these substances include glucose, iron, copper, vitamin B12, vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin K (helps blood to clot), and vitamin B9 (aids in red blood cell synthesis). 4) Synthesis and Secretion The liver synthesizes and secretes plasma proteins that act as clotting factors and help to maintain proper blood fluid balance. The blood protein fibrinogen produced by the liver is converted to fibrin, a sticky fibrous mesh that traps platelets and other blood cells. Another clotting factor produced by the liver, prothrombin, is needed to convert fibrinogen to fibrin. The liver also produces a number of carrier proteins including albumin, which transports substances such as hormones, fatty acids, calcium, bilirubin, and various drugs. Hormones are also synthesized and secreted by the liver when needed. Liver-synthesized hormones include insulin-like growth factor 1, which aids in early growth and development. Thrombopoietin is a hormone that regulates platelet production in bone marrow. 5)Immune Defense The K​upffer cells of the liver filter the blood of pathogens such as bacteria, parasites, and fungi. They also rid the body of old blood cells, dead cells, cancer cells, and cellular refuse. Harmful substances and waste products are secreted by the liver into either the bile or the blood. Substances secreted into bile are eliminated from the body through the digestive tract. Substances secreted into the blood are filtered by the kidneys and excreted in urine.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Prostitution The Crime Of Prostitution - 1671 Words

Before conducting extensive research on the crime of prostitution I wrote down several different explanations that I believe explain why women participate in prostitution. Women participate in the act of prostitution for many reasons. First and foremost prostitution is known to be a very lucrative business, similar to the porn industry and stripping industry. Therefore, women participate in prostitution to make large amounts of money; in prostitution (like in any other profession) money is always the main motive. Some women participate in prostitution due to a severe lack of education. Many women become involved in prostitution because they do not possess a GED or a high school diploma. They either dropped out of school or they just never†¦show more content†¦Some women do not get to freely choose whether or not they want to become involved in prostitution. For this assignment I did some extensive research about the crime of prostitution. I watched many in-depth documentarie s about individuals who are currently involved in prostitution and ex prostitutes and from these documentaries I gathered some true reasons as to why so many women become involved in prostitution. In all the documentaries I viewed the main reason women stated they became prostitutes was because they either ran away from home or dropped out of school and was in desperate need for money. The women stated that they worked several jobs but the money was not sufficient enough to support themselves and/or their families so they became involved in prostitution in efforts to make fast and easy money. Another reason frequently stated by several women in the documentaries was that they became involved in prostitution due to their troublesome upbringings. Most women stated that they ran away from their homes due to the fact that they were constantly being molested at a very young age. The constant molestation at a young age had a negative impact on the women causing them to become involved in prostitution. In one documentary on entitled â€Å" Prostitution: leaving the life† an ex-prostitute stated that â€Å" I decided to sell my body since it hadShow MoreRelatedIs Prostitution A Crime?968 Words   |  4 PagesWhat Is Prostitution? Prostitution is where people engage in a sexual activity with someone else for money. The whole subject of prostitution is full of ambiguities and hypocrisies; we generally think of the transfer of money as the element that makes prostitution a crime although money plays a subtle part in all sorts of sexual relationships. We define prostitution as systematic sexual violence and oppression against women and girls. The definition of prostitution includes not only the exchangeRead MoreIs Prostitution A Victimless Crime3179 Words   |  13 PagesIs prostitution a victimless crime and should this affect its legislation? As established earlier, a victimless crime is defined as a legal offense in which all parties consent and no party is injured. I believe that this is a key thought to consider when discussing the legislation of prostitution, because surely an act should only be illegal if there are directly negative impacts caused it? If prostitution is in fact a ‘victimless crime’, does it even need to be considered a crime at all? A crimeRead MoreShould Prostitution Be A Victimless Crime?1506 Words   |  7 PagesThe act of prostitution has been a leading topic of moral and legislative debate for centuries. Sometimes referred to as the ‘world’s oldest profession’ because it dates back to around 2400 B.C., prostitution is the practice of exchanging, selling or trading of sexual acts for payment. Although this service is forbidden amongst the world more often than it is not, the debate of its legalization has remained a heated issue (ProQuest Staff).The legalization of prostitution and whether or not prostitutionRead MoreThe Crime Of The State Of Colorado Prostitution1103 Words   |  5 Pagesof prostitution, it is a third degree felony, punishable by two to ten years in a state prison and/or a fine of no more than $10,000. For the crime of compelling prostitution, the offense is second degree felony. This is punishable by two to twenty years in a state prison and/or a fine of no more than $10,000 (Texas Prostitution Laws - FindLaw). In the state of Colorado prostitution is illegal in all counties and it is a crime to buy or sell sex. A person commits the crime of prostitution inRead MoreJuvenile Prostitution Crimes Essay1076 Words   |  5 PagesJuvenile prostitution could be define as the time in which a teenage under the age of 18 engage in sexual activities in exchange of money, property, or for mainly other reason than satisfy one emotional or sexual needs. When we think of juvenile prostitution we usually think that these grills sell their self for pleasure or because they want to but, the reality is that this crime is escalating to a level that our teenagers are becoming like slave in the 2009 this crime is getting worst and our communityRead MoreSex Trafficking As A Crime And The Legalizing Of Prostitution1389 Words   |  6 Pages Sex Trafficking as a crime and the legalizing of prostitution Sex trafficking is defined as forced labor or human slavery. Prostitution is defined as the act of offering one s self for hire to engage in sexual relations. Sex trafficking is a severe problem globally, even right here in the United States. While any form of slavery is unjustifiable, human trafficking has been going on for centuries. However, increased awareness of this issue has brought more mindfulness to the situation andRead MorePublic Order Crime Prostitution Is Not A Victimless Crime Essay840 Words   |  4 Pages I think the public order crime prostitution is not a victimless crime because most of the women/ men are forced to stay in that line of work. For example a woman pays a Coyotaje to bring her sister from China over, she told once the sister gets to the states she will be reunited with her sister but they keep her against her will in a illegal massage parlor. They will now tell her sister that she owes more money a huge amount and unless she pays it off her sister will be forced to have to pim herselfRead MoreSex Trafficking : Prostitution, Crime And Exploitation2027 Words   |  9 PagesSex Traffic: Prostitution, Crime and Exploitation. The paper will look at the causes, consequences and prevalence rates of sex trafficking and will consider the impact of such factors as globalization and women’s poverty in perpetuating the problem or making it worse. The paper will conclude with a discussion of the ways in which a human rights perspective might translate into positive action to eliminate the trafficking of girls and women. Paola Monzini notes that prostitution and sex traffickingRead MoreLegalization Of Prostitution : Is It Really A Victimless Crime?1913 Words   |  8 PagesLegalization of Prostitution: Is It Really a Victimless Crime? The definition of prostitution, according to Merriam-Webster Dictionary, is â€Å"the work of a prostitute: the act of having sex in exchange of money,† and â€Å"the use of a skill or ability in a way that is not appropriate or respectable† (Merriam-Webster). The definition alone casts a shadow of negativity onto prostitution, plainly stating that it is wrong. The history of prostitution in America can be traced back to the founding days whenRead More Prostitution Should Be Legalized in Our Society1260 Words   |  5 PagesHow about prostitute? Although some people might think that prostitution is dirty job, prostitution is also one of the important jobs which are composing our society. Devaluation on prostitute recognition should be changed. This essay deals with reasons why prostitution should be allowed and what are the advantages of prostitution. First reason that prostitution should be legalized is for women’s right. As upper mentioned, prostitution is a kind of occupations. According to research among the women

Nucor Case Free Essays

NUCOR CASE In this analysis we use the Net present value to consider if Nucor should invest in the new technology called: thin slab minimill. NPV is really useful in order to make this kind of decision because it uses the concept of future cash value to evaluate whether the investment is worth, however the NPV is sometimes difficult to calculate because it is not always easy to estimate future cash flow. Considering the assumption I made in the first part of the spread sheet, the thin slab project doesn’t appear to be a wise investment for Nucor because the future cash flows at the present value are less than the initial cost of the investment. We will write a custom essay sample on Nucor Case or any similar topic only for you Order Now Comparing the NPV of the three different scenarios it is evident that the best option for Iverson is to continue whit the unmodernized process. The first consideration about to undertake the investment is based on particular assumptions about the future, if we change those the result of the decision could also change. Due to the fluctuation of the market is difficult to make the right assumptions and this is why to calculate the NPV is not easy. For instance if we changed the discount rate and we lower it below the IRR, the resulting NPV will be positive and this case to invest in the new technology could be a profitable decision. We can also change the steel price rate keeping the cost rate constant, if it is increased enough the NPV could result positive, at the same time if we reduce cost rate keeping the price rate constant we can find an equal result. Regarding the real option analysis if Nucor decides to wait it is unlikely that another will decide to make this kind of investment first. The follow strategy could be a wise decision for Nucor, because the NPV is slightly negative so the management could decide to undertake this investment in order to gain experience and subsequently use that experience for other plants so this initial price could generate future opportunities. How to cite Nucor Case, Essay examples

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Metabolic Processes Photosynthesis Essay Example

Metabolic Processes: Photosynthesis Essay Modified True/FalseIndicate whether the sentence or statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the sentence or statement true.____ 1. The organelle that is unique to eukaryotic photoautotrophs is the chromoplast. _____________________________ 2. Light energy is principally transferred by chlorophyll b. _____________________________ 3. When exposed to bright white light chlorophyll fluoresces green. _____________________________ 4. In general, photosynthesis rates are lower at lower oxygen concentrations. ____________________________________________ 5. The location of the H+ reservoir in the chloroplast is the intermembrane space. ___________________________________Multiple ChoiceIdentify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.____ 1. Of the following biological compounds, which one contains the element, nitrogen?a.fatty acidsd.starchb.sugare.proteinc.glycerol____ 2. An oxidation/reduction is best show n by which of the following? amino and carboxyl group form a peptide bondb.two small molecules chemically combine to form a large onec.a base reacts with an acid to form water and a saltd.electrons are transferred from one substance to anothere.a large molecule is broken into two smaller molecules____ 3. The activity of an enzyme can be altered by changing the pH of its surroundings slightly. This change in pH works bya.causing the enzyme to precipitateb.masking its active sitec.increasing the activation energy of the reactiond.breaking its peptide bondse.altering its three dimensional shape____ 4. Which of the following is not a cofactor or coenzyme?a.Zn2+d.Fe2+b.Mn2+e.NADP+c.NAD+____ 5. Which of the following statements concerning allosteric regulation is not true?a.Allosteric sites are usually located next to, but separate from, the active site.b.Alosterically controlled enzymes usually have quaternary structure.c.Activators tend to keep all the active sites available to the normal substrate.d.Allosteric inhibitors stabilize the inactive form of the enzyme.e.Allosteric regulators attach to their sites using weak bonds.____ 6. Which of the following processes most likely does not involve anaerobic conditions?a.yeast causing bread dough to riseb.bacteria working in an aeration tank at a sewage plantc.bacteria in the soil help in compostingd.alcohol is produced in fermentatione.sewage breaks down in a septic tank____ 7. In an investigation of the pigments in the leaves of a particular plant, one spot moved 8.0 cm from the origin, while the solvent front moved 10.0 cm. What would the Rf value of the pigment be?a.80.0d.1.25b.8.0e.0.8c.2.0____ 8. Photophosphorylation specifically refers to thea.synthesis of glucose via carbon fixationb.splitting water as a result of lightc.synthesis of ATP by photolysisd.reduction of NADPH by electron transporte.synthesis of ATP using light____ 9. During carbon fixation, which of the following is a product?a.ATPd.carbon dioxi deb.3-phosphoglyceratee.oxygenc.NADPH____ 10. The name of the process whereby a plant uses oxygen in light.a.transpirationd.photorespirationb.translocatione.photosynthesisc.photophosphorylationImagine you have five small glass jars that are sealed to the atmosphere. All the jars are filled with a bicarbonate solution (as a source of carbon dioxide) and an indicator. The differences between each jar are described below:Jar #1: Has a small fish.Jar #2: Has one small fish in addition to some aquatic plants.Jar #3: Has three small fish in addition to some aquatic plants.Jar #4: Has some aquatic plants.Jar #5: Has some aquatic plants, but the jar is completely surrounded by aluminum foil.The indicator shows you how much carbon dioxide is in each jar. The following table shows the relative amounts:Colour of pH indicator solutionRelative amount of carbon dioxideredhighgreenmedium (equivalent to atmosphere)bluelowThe following table shows the results of an experiment where the tubes were al lowed to stand under natural light for several hours.ObservationJar #1Jar #2Jar #3Jar #4Jar #5Starting colour of indicatorgreengreengreengreengreenFinal colour of indicatorredgreenredbluegreen____ 11. The following are statements regarding the above results:I. respiration is taking place in all five test tubesII. respiration is exceeding photosynthesis in Jar#3III. photosynthesis is occurring in Jar#5IV. the lowest concentration of carbon dioxide is found in Jar#2Which of the above statements are correct?a.II and IIId.II and IVb.I and IIe.III and IVc.I and IVOptional Multiple Choice The correct answer is indicated by a (*)1. Photoexcitation occurs whena. 2ADP + 2Pi 2 ATP on 2 cytochromesb. light releases electrons from double covalent bonds on chlorophyll ac. 2 H2O 4H+ + O2 + 4 electronsd. pallisade mesophylle. ultra-violet (UV)2. In a C3 plant most of the photosynthesis activity occurs in thea. bundle sheath cellsb. spongy mesophyllc. RUDP; 2PGAd. pallisade mesophylle. pyruvic a cid3. C4 plants fix CO2 onto ________; to form ______________.a. RUDP; 2PGAb. pyruvic acid; 2PGAc. PEP; oxaloacetic acidd. chlorophyll a (bulk); chlorophyll be. glucose, water4. C3 plants fix CO2 onto __________; to form ____________.a. PEP; oxaloacetic acidb. pyruvic acid; 2PGAc. RUDP; 2PGAd. Glycogen, pyruvatee. Alcohol, aspartame5. The antenna pigments includea. chlorophyll a (bulk); chlorophyll b (all)b. chlorophyll b (all); carotenoids (all)c. Xanthophylls, cyaninsd. chlorophyll a (bulk); chlorophyll b (all); carotenoidse. Glycine, methylglycol6. The light reaction PRIMARILY absorbs light from the visible spectrum that isa. ultra-violet (UV)b. violetc. redd. The matrixe. green7. The light reaction occursa. the thyakoid membraneb. in the matrixc. in the stromad. Granae. Vacuole8. The dark reaction occurs in thea. matrixb. thyakoid membranec. stromad. lammmellaee. pancreas9. In the following equation, the 6 O2 originated from the6 CO2 + 12 H2O -1 2 6O2 + C6H12O6 + 6 H2Oa. 6 CO2b. 12 H2Oc. 6 H2Od. sulphure. antimony10. In the following equation, the C6 on glucose originated from the6 CO2 + 12 H2O -1 2 6O2 + C6H12O6 + 6 H2Oa. 12 H2Ob. 6 CO2c. C6H12O6d. Sulfur gase. air11. 1 and 2 on the - are6 CO2 + 12 H2O -1 2 6O2 + C6H12O6 + 6 H2Oa. CO2, H2Ob. chlorophyll a and chlorophyll bc. light and chlorophylld. aspartame and proteine. DNA and chlorine12. The major end products of the LIGHT REACTION is (are)a. 4 e- + 4H+ + O2b. ATP, NADPH2c. 6O2, 6 H2Od. NADPHe. FAD+13. Carotenoids absorb light PRIMARILY from the _________ portion(s) of the visible spectrum.a. red, violetb. bluec. greend. blacke. yellow-orange14. Both the end products of the LIGHT REACTION are used in the:a. reduction of 2 PGAs to 2 PGALsb. oxidation of 2 PGAs to 2 PGALsc. fixation of CO2 on RUPd. Calvin cycle15. Both the end products of the light reaction are used in thea. conversion of PGAL to DHAP through a series of reactionsb. oxidation of NADPHc. conversion of RUDP to PGAL through a series of rea ctionsd. Cellular respiration16. Which condition below favours the highest rate of PHOTOSYNTHESIS? (select only one)(a) CO2 0.2% light 7000 1x temperature 20oC(b) CO2 0.2% light 7000 1x temperature 15oC(c) CO2 10 % light 7000 1x temperature 25oC17. Regardless of light intensity and temperature, the rate of photosynthesis will not increase when the CO2 concentration isa. below 0.2%b. above 0.03%c. above 0.2%d. up to 100%e. below 0.011%18. The rate of photosynthesis is observed by :a. counting the O2 bubbles given offb. collecting O2 gas from the reactionc. looking at the water producedd. both a and b are feasiblee. counting the number of sugars19. Photosystem II receives electrons froma. photolysis of waterb. 2 cytochromesc. NADPH2d. Mitochondriae. rubisco20. Photosystem II produces _______ for the dark reactiona. ATP onlyb. both ATP and NADPH2c. PGALd. Electronse. protons21. In Photosystem I, chloroplasts use light to producea. histamineb. CO2c. Carbond. Carbonic acide. NADPH22. Lig ht is one factor involved with the rate of photosynthesis. Two others area. temperature and CO2b. temperature and O2c. water and ozoned. sulphur concentration and aluminium ion concentratione. chlorine concentration and H ion concentration23. The oxygen released through photosynthesis is derived froma. CO2b. waterc. ATP24. Rank the events a to c from which occurs first to which occurs last. Select the event that comes last.a. P700 is oxidizedb. photophosphorylationc. P680 is oxidized25. Rank the events a to c from which occurs first to which occurs last. Select the event that comes first.a. photophosphorylationb. P680 is oxidizedc. P700 is oxidized26. During the operation of photosystem Ia. NADPH is reduced and P700 is reducedb. P680 is reduced along with ATPc. P700 is oxidized and NADP+ is reducedd. ATP is reducede. The chloroplast is excited27. The general accomplishment of the DARK REACTION is thea. synthesis of ATPb. synthesis of PGALc. reduction of CO2 by hydrogend. Production of sulphuric acid gase. The production a alanine28. When light is absorbed by photosystem IIa. P700 is oxidized and CO2 is liberatedb. P680 is oxidized and O2 is liberatedc. P680 is converted to P700d. When the sun stops shininge. When the asparate shuttle stopsOther multiple choice questions can be found at: and, questions1. Temperature and pH affect enzyme activity. As with all other reactions, enzyme-catalyzed reactions _________________________ in speed with an increase in temperature. However, as the temperature increases beyond a critical point, the protein structure begins to get disrupted , resulting in _________________________ and loss of enzyme function. Every enzyme has a(n) _________________________ temperature at which it works best and activity tends to decrease on either side of this temperature. Most human enzymes work best at around _________ ________________. Some enzymes require nonprotein _________________________, such as zinc and manganese ions. Other enzymes may require organic _________________________ such as NAD+ and NADP+. A variety of substances inhibit enzyme activity. ___________________________________ are so similar to the enzymes substrate that they are able to enter he enzymes active site and block the normal substrate from binding. This process is reversible and can be overcome be increasing the concentration of the enzymes substrate. Another class of inhibitors does not affect an enzyme at its active site, they are called ___________________________________ and their effect cannot be overcome by adding more substrate.2. In a general, overall comparison of the reactions that occur during cellular respiration and photosynthesis, it can be said that the main reactant in respiration is ____________________, while in photosynthesis it is ______________________________ and _________________________. In contr ast to this, the main products of cellular respiration are _________________________ and _________________________, while in photosynthesis the main product is ____________________ with an interesting waste product ____________________ that is very useful to many creatures on Earth. Cellular respiration is a process that ____________________ energy , while photosynthesis ____________________ energy.MatchingMatch each item with the correct statement below.a.ground stateg.photosystem Ib.excitationh.photosystem IIc.fluorescencei.noncyclic electron flowd.primary electron acceptorj.Z proteine.antenna complexk.photophosphorylationf.reaction centrel.cyclic electron flow____ 1. The release of energy as light as an electron returns to ground state.____ 2. The absorption of energy by an electron.____ 3. The lowest possible potential energy level of an electron.____ 4. Contains chlorophyll P680.____ 5. Transmembrane protein of chlorophyll a that absorbs light energy.____ 6. Contains chlorophyl l P700.____ 7. Web of chlorophyll molecules that transfers energy to a reaction centre.____ 8. Light-dependent formation of ATP.____ 9. Photon-energized electrons move to produce only ATP.____ 10. Protein that helps split water into hydrogen ions, oxygen and electrons.Short Answer1. Plants are the only important photosynthetic organisms. Comment on this statement.2. What are the roles of water and light in photosynthesis?3. Photosystem I usually converts most of the light energy it receives to ATP and NADPH by noncyclic electron flow. There are times when some of the energy is used by cyclic electron flow.a. What is cyclic electron flow?b. Why is it called cyclic?c. At what times does cyclic electron flow occur?4. Complete the following table to compare the various types of photosynthesis.C3C4CAMUsual areas were these plants are found.First enzyme to fix carbon dioxideName of molecule formed immediately following carbon dioxide fixation.Is there an energy cost associated with carbon dioxide fixation? (Y/N)5. Design an experiment to show whether sulphur dioxide, a gas produced during many industrial processes, has an effect on photosynthesis. Be sure to include a clear hypothesis.Essay1. You may have come into this course with the impression that plants photosynthesize during the day and respire at night. Based on what you have learned in this course comment on this impression.2. Compare and contrast C4 and CAM photosynthesis in terms of their abilities to counter the process known as photorespiration.Unit 1 Test Metabolic ProcessesAnswer Section according to government expectationsMODIFIED TRUE/FALSE1. ANS: F, chloroplast REF: C OBJ: 3.1LOC: MP1.052. ANS: F, chlorophyll a REF: K/U OBJ: 3.2LOC: MP1.013. ANS: F, red REF: K/U OBJ: 3.3LOC: MP1.014. ANS: F, higher oxygen concentrations REF: C OBJ: 3.5LOC: MP1.055. ANS: F, interior of the thylakoid REF: C OBJ: 3.6LOC: MP2.05MULTIPLE CHOICE1. ANS: E REF: K/U OBJ: 1.2 LOC: MP1.022. ANS: D REF: K/U OBJ: 1.3 LOC: MP1.0 43. ANS: E REF: K/U OBJ: 1.4 LOC: MP1.034. ANS: D REF: K/U OBJ: 1.4 LOC: MP1.035. ANS: A REF: K/U OBJ: 1.4 LOC: MP1.036. ANS: B REF: K/U OBJ: 2.1 LOC: MP1.067. ANS: E REF: I OBJ: 3.2 LOC: MP2.068. ANS: E REF: K/U OBJ: 3.3 LOC: MP1.059. ANS: B REF: K/U OBJ: 3.3 LOC: MP1.0510. ANS: D REF: K/U OBJ: 3.4 LOC: MP1.0611. ANS: B REF: I OBJ: 3.6 LOC: MP2.06OPTIONAL M.C. QUESTIONS:1b, 2d, 3c, 4c, 5d, 6c, 7a, 8c, 9b, 10b, 11c, 12b, 13b, 14a, 15c, 16a, 17c, 18d, 19a, 20a, 21e, 22a, 23b, 24a, 25b, 26c, 27b, 28bCOMPLETION1. ANS:increasedenaturationoptimal37?CcofactorscoenzymesCompetitive inhibitorsnon-competitive inhibitorsREF: K/U OBJ: 1.4 LOC: MP1.032. ANS:glucosecarbon dioxide/waterwater/carbon dioxidecarbon dioxide/waterwater/carbon dioxideglucoseoxygenreleasesstoresREF: K/U, C OBJ: 3.6 LOC: MP1.06, MP2.05MATCHING1. ANS: C REF: C OBJ: 3.3 LOC: MP1.062. ANS: B REF: C OBJ: 3.3 LOC: MP1.063. ANS: A REF: C OBJ: 3.3 LOC: MP1.064. ANS: H REF: C OBJ: 3.3 LOC: MP1.065. ANS: F REF: C OBJ: 3.3 LOC: MP1 .066. ANS: G REF: C OBJ: 3.3 LOC: MP1.067. ANS: E REF: C OBJ: 3.3 LOC: MP1.068. ANS: K REF: C OBJ: 3.3 LOC: MP1.069. ANS: L REF: C OBJ: 3.3 LOC: MP1.0610. ANS: J REF: C OBJ: 3.3 LOC: MP1.06SHORT ANSWER1. ANS:While plants may be the most visible photosynthetic organisms, they are not the only ones and probably not the most important ones. In addition to the higher plants, which are usually the most familiar with people, organisms such as algae, photosynthetic protists and cyanobacteria also carry out photosynthesis. Given the size of the oceans, the photosynthetic organisms that live in this environment probably have a huge effect on global oxygen and carbon dioxide levels.REF: MC OBJ: 3.1, 3.5 LOC: MP3.032. ANS:- Water is needed as a source of hydrogen ions and electrons which are used in reduction reactions.- Light is needed as a source of energy to excite electrons of chlorophyll, which results in the splitting of water to form oxygen and release the hydrogen ions and electrons me ntioned previously.REF: K/U OBJ: 3.3 LOC: MP1.053. ANS:a. In cyclic electron flow when photosystem I is struck by a photon with the correct energy, it will release electrons to the same carrier molecules as non-cyclic electron flow. These electrons move through a cytochrome system and cause hydrogen ions to move from the stroma across the thylakoid membrane to the inside of the thylakoid. The higher concentration of hydrogen ions inside the thylakoids can be used to make ATP. The chlorophyll molecule of PS I oxidizes the final electron carrier, gaining electrons to return to its reduced form.b. The term cyclic is used because the chlorophyll of PS I serves as both the electron donor and electron acceptor.c. Cyclic electron flow would appear to occur when reserves of NADP+ are low, which would imply that levels of NADPH are high. These means there will be a shortage of electron acceptors, which results in electrons being accepted by the cytochrome electron carrier system.4. ANS:C3C4C AMUsual areas were these plants are found.temperatetemperate to tropicalaridFirst enzyme to fix carbon dioxiderubiscoPEP carboxylasePEP carboxylaseName of molecule formed immediately following carbon dioxide fixation.3-phosphoglycerateoxaloacetateoxaloacetateIs there an energy cost associated with carbon dioxide fixation? (Y/N)NoYes, ATPYes, ATPREF: K/U, MC OBJ: 3.3, 3.4 LOC: MP1.05, MP3.035. ANS:Hypothesis: any clear statement indicating they understand the role of a hypothesis in framing the investigation.Controls: there should be some plants that will receive no treatment with sulphur dioxide, but otherwise are exposed to all the same conditions as the other plants.Replicates: there should be mention of repeating the experiment on several plants for both the treated and untreated group.Method: there should be some indication of how sulphur dioxide will be generated, how its application will be controlled and what will be measured to determine whether or not sulphur dioxide has an effect on photosynthesis or not.REF: I OBJ: 3.5 LOC: MP2.04ESSAY1. ANS:While it is true that plants photosynthesize during the day and respire at night it would be a mistake to assume that plants are this simple. Respiration is a process that continues on throughout the entire life of a plant, in other words it will occur both during the day and at night. Photosynthesis, on the other hand, having a requirement for light obviously can occur only when light is available. Many people choose to look at photosynthesis and respiration as opposite processes. In terms of the gases they consume and produce, this is true, but from a biochemical point of view the reactions are extremely different. While respiration consumes oxygen and produces carbon dioxide, photosynthesis does the opposite.At night, only respiration is occurring and so there is a net production of carbon dioxide gas. As the sun rises and the light intensity increases, photosynthesis increase to a point where carbon dioxide consumption by photosynthesis equals carbon dioxide production by respiration. As light intensity increases further, the consumption of carbon dioxide in photosynthesis exceeds the production in respiration and there is a net consumption of carbon dioxide. In addition, photosynthesis will now produce more oxygen than respiration requires leading to net production of oxygen.REF: K/U OBJ: 3.6 LOC: MP1.062. ANS:Photorespiration is the oxidation of ribulose bisphosphate by rubisco and oxygen in light to form glycolate, which upon subsequent metabolism releases carbon dioxide. It is seen as a wasteful process both in terms of the carbon dioxide lost that could have become photosynthetic product, and the energy used along the way in releasing the carbon dioxide. This is a process that typically occurs in C3 plants such as many deciduous trees. Two mechanisms have evolved in higher plants to counteract the process of respiration, they are C4 and CAM photosynthesis.C4 photosynthesis is one response some plants have evolved to the problem of photorespiration. Plants such a corn and sugar cane are examples of such plants. The enzyme that fixes carbon dioxide in these plants is PEP carboxylase in the mesophyll cells of the vascular bundles, and the first product formed is oxaloacetate, a four carbon compound. PEP carboxylase has no oxygenase function as rubisco has so there is no initial problem with photorespiration. The oxaloacetate is converted to malate and shuttled into the bundle sheath cells where it is decarboxylated to pyruvate with the release of carbon dioxide which can now be fixed by rubisco which is present in these cells. However, the oxygen concentration in these cells is very low so photorespiration has been effectively eliminated but at the expense of some ATP. C4 represents a spatial separation of photosynthesis.CAM stands for crassulacean acid metabolism and is so named because it was first discovered in members of the plant family known as a the Cras sulacea (e.g., cacti, pineapples, aloe). CAM is a way that some plants have evolved to avoid the problem of photorespiration. In this process the stomata of the plants are open during the night when it is cooler and less water can be lost. Carbon dioxide can enter, but the usual method of fixing the carbon, by using the energy produced in the light-dependent reactions obviously is not available. PEP carboxylase is used to fix carbon dioxide into organic acids which are stored in the vacuoles of the mesophyll cells. During the day, when the stomata are closed, the organic acids are decarboxylated and the carbon dioxide that is released is fixed by rubisco in the Calvin cycle which is located in the bundle sheath cells. There is a cost of some ATP in the process. CAM represents a temporal separation of photosynthesis.