Thursday, May 21, 2020

Human Liver Anatomy and Function

The liver is an important vital organ that also happens to be the largest internal organ in the body. Weighing between 3 and 3.5 pounds, the liver is located in the upper right area of the abdominal cavity and is responsible for hundreds of different functions. Some of these functions include nutrient metabolism, detoxification of harmful substances, and protecting the body from germs. The liver has a unique ability to regenerate itself. This ability makes it possible for individuals to donate part of their liver for transplantation. Liver Anatomy The liver is a reddish-brown organ that is located below the diaphragm and superior to other abdominal cavity organs such as the stomach, kidneys, gallbladder, and intestines. The most prominent feature of the liver is its larger right lobe and smaller left lobe. These two main lobes are separated by a band of connective tissue. Each liver lobe is internally composed of thousands of smaller units called lobules. Lobules are small liver segments containing arteries, veins, sinusoids, bile ducts, and liver cells. Liver tissue is composed of two main types of cells. Hepatocytes are the most numerous type of liver cells. These epithelial cells are responsible for most of the functions performed by the liver. Kupffer cells are immune cells that are also found in the liver. They are thought to be a type of macrophage that rids the body of pathogens and old red blood cells. The liver also contains numerous bile ducts, which drain bile produced by the liver into larger hepatic ducts. These ducts join to form the common hepatic duct. The cystic duct extending from the gallbladder joins the common hepatic duct to form the common bile duct. Bile from the liver and gallbladder drain into the common bile duct and are delivered to the upper portion of the small intestines (duodenum). Bile is a dark greenish or yellow fluid produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. It aids in the digestion of fats and helps eliminate toxic wastes. Liver Function The liver performs a number of vital functions in the body. A major function of the liver is to process substances in the blood. The liver receives blood from organs including the stomach, small intestines, spleen, pancreas, and gallbladder through the hepatic portal vein. The liver then processes, filters, and detoxifies the blood before sending it back to the heart via the inferior vena cava. The liver has a digestive system, immune system, endocrine system, and exocrine functions. A number of important liver functions are listed below. 1) Fat Digestion A key function of the liver is the digestion of fats. Bile produced by the liver breaks down fat in the small intestines so that it can be used for energy. 2) Metabolism The liver metabolizes carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids in the blood that are initially processed during digestion. Hepatocytes store glucose obtained from the break down of carbohydrates in the foods we eat. Excess glucose is removed from the blood and stored as glycogen in the liver. When glucose is needed, the liver breaks down glycogen into glucose and releases the sugar into the blood. The liver metabolizes amino acids from digested proteins. In the process, toxic ammonia is produced which the liver converts to urea. Urea is transported to the blood and is passed to the kidneys where it is excreted in urine. The liver processes fats to produce other lipids including phospholipids and cholesterol. These substances are necessary for cell membrane production, digestion, bile acid formation, and hormone production. The liver also metabolizes hemoglobin, chemicals, medications, alcohol and other drugs in the blood. 3) Nutrient Storage The liver stores nutrients obtained from the blood for use when needed. Some of these substances include glucose, iron, copper, vitamin B12, vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin K (helps blood to clot), and vitamin B9 (aids in red blood cell synthesis). 4) Synthesis and Secretion The liver synthesizes and secretes plasma proteins that act as clotting factors and help to maintain proper blood fluid balance. The blood protein fibrinogen produced by the liver is converted to fibrin, a sticky fibrous mesh that traps platelets and other blood cells. Another clotting factor produced by the liver, prothrombin, is needed to convert fibrinogen to fibrin. The liver also produces a number of carrier proteins including albumin, which transports substances such as hormones, fatty acids, calcium, bilirubin, and various drugs. Hormones are also synthesized and secreted by the liver when needed. Liver-synthesized hormones include insulin-like growth factor 1, which aids in early growth and development. Thrombopoietin is a hormone that regulates platelet production in bone marrow. 5)Immune Defense The K​upffer cells of the liver filter the blood of pathogens such as bacteria, parasites, and fungi. They also rid the body of old blood cells, dead cells, cancer cells, and cellular refuse. Harmful substances and waste products are secreted by the liver into either the bile or the blood. Substances secreted into bile are eliminated from the body through the digestive tract. Substances secreted into the blood are filtered by the kidneys and excreted in urine.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Prostitution The Crime Of Prostitution - 1671 Words

Before conducting extensive research on the crime of prostitution I wrote down several different explanations that I believe explain why women participate in prostitution. Women participate in the act of prostitution for many reasons. First and foremost prostitution is known to be a very lucrative business, similar to the porn industry and stripping industry. Therefore, women participate in prostitution to make large amounts of money; in prostitution (like in any other profession) money is always the main motive. Some women participate in prostitution due to a severe lack of education. Many women become involved in prostitution because they do not possess a GED or a high school diploma. They either dropped out of school or they just never†¦show more content†¦Some women do not get to freely choose whether or not they want to become involved in prostitution. For this assignment I did some extensive research about the crime of prostitution. I watched many in-depth documentarie s about individuals who are currently involved in prostitution and ex prostitutes and from these documentaries I gathered some true reasons as to why so many women become involved in prostitution. In all the documentaries I viewed the main reason women stated they became prostitutes was because they either ran away from home or dropped out of school and was in desperate need for money. The women stated that they worked several jobs but the money was not sufficient enough to support themselves and/or their families so they became involved in prostitution in efforts to make fast and easy money. Another reason frequently stated by several women in the documentaries was that they became involved in prostitution due to their troublesome upbringings. Most women stated that they ran away from their homes due to the fact that they were constantly being molested at a very young age. The constant molestation at a young age had a negative impact on the women causing them to become involved in prostitution. In one documentary on entitled â€Å" Prostitution: leaving the life† an ex-prostitute stated that â€Å" I decided to sell my body since it hadShow MoreRelatedIs Prostitution A Crime?968 Words   |  4 PagesWhat Is Prostitution? Prostitution is where people engage in a sexual activity with someone else for money. The whole subject of prostitution is full of ambiguities and hypocrisies; we generally think of the transfer of money as the element that makes prostitution a crime although money plays a subtle part in all sorts of sexual relationships. We define prostitution as systematic sexual violence and oppression against women and girls. The definition of prostitution includes not only the exchangeRead MoreIs Prostitution A Victimless Crime3179 Words   |  13 PagesIs prostitution a victimless crime and should this affect its legislation? As established earlier, a victimless crime is defined as a legal offense in which all parties consent and no party is injured. I believe that this is a key thought to consider when discussing the legislation of prostitution, because surely an act should only be illegal if there are directly negative impacts caused it? If prostitution is in fact a ‘victimless crime’, does it even need to be considered a crime at all? A crimeRead MoreShould Prostitution Be A Victimless Crime?1506 Words   |  7 PagesThe act of prostitution has been a leading topic of moral and legislative debate for centuries. Sometimes referred to as the ‘world’s oldest profession’ because it dates back to around 2400 B.C., prostitution is the practice of exchanging, selling or trading of sexual acts for payment. Although this service is forbidden amongst the world more often than it is not, the debate of its legalization has remained a heated issue (ProQuest Staff).The legalization of prostitution and whether or not prostitutionRead MoreThe Crime Of The State Of Colorado Prostitution1103 Words   |  5 Pagesof prostitution, it is a third degree felony, punishable by two to ten years in a state prison and/or a fine of no more than $10,000. For the crime of compelling prostitution, the offense is second degree felony. This is punishable by two to twenty years in a state prison and/or a fine of no more than $10,000 (Texas Prostitution Laws - FindLaw). In the state of Colorado prostitution is illegal in all counties and it is a crime to buy or sell sex. A person commits the crime of prostitution inRead MoreJuvenile Prostitution Crimes Essay1076 Words   |  5 PagesJuvenile prostitution could be define as the time in which a teenage under the age of 18 engage in sexual activities in exchange of money, property, or for mainly other reason than satisfy one emotional or sexual needs. When we think of juvenile prostitution we usually think that these grills sell their self for pleasure or because they want to but, the reality is that this crime is escalating to a level that our teenagers are becoming like slave in the 2009 this crime is getting worst and our communityRead MoreSex Trafficking As A Crime And The Legalizing Of Prostitution1389 Words   |  6 Pages Sex Trafficking as a crime and the legalizing of prostitution Sex trafficking is defined as forced labor or human slavery. Prostitution is defined as the act of offering one s self for hire to engage in sexual relations. Sex trafficking is a severe problem globally, even right here in the United States. While any form of slavery is unjustifiable, human trafficking has been going on for centuries. However, increased awareness of this issue has brought more mindfulness to the situation andRead MorePublic Order Crime Prostitution Is Not A Victimless Crime Essay840 Words   |  4 Pages I think the public order crime prostitution is not a victimless crime because most of the women/ men are forced to stay in that line of work. For example a woman pays a Coyotaje to bring her sister from China over, she told once the sister gets to the states she will be reunited with her sister but they keep her against her will in a illegal massage parlor. They will now tell her sister that she owes more money a huge amount and unless she pays it off her sister will be forced to have to pim herselfRead MoreSex Trafficking : Prostitution, Crime And Exploitation2027 Words   |  9 PagesSex Traffic: Prostitution, Crime and Exploitation. The paper will look at the causes, consequences and prevalence rates of sex trafficking and will consider the impact of such factors as globalization and women’s poverty in perpetuating the problem or making it worse. The paper will conclude with a discussion of the ways in which a human rights perspective might translate into positive action to eliminate the trafficking of girls and women. Paola Monzini notes that prostitution and sex traffickingRead MoreLegalization Of Prostitution : Is It Really A Victimless Crime?1913 Words   |  8 PagesLegalization of Prostitution: Is It Really a Victimless Crime? The definition of prostitution, according to Merriam-Webster Dictionary, is â€Å"the work of a prostitute: the act of having sex in exchange of money,† and â€Å"the use of a skill or ability in a way that is not appropriate or respectable† (Merriam-Webster). The definition alone casts a shadow of negativity onto prostitution, plainly stating that it is wrong. The history of prostitution in America can be traced back to the founding days whenRead More Prostitution Should Be Legalized in Our Society1260 Words   |  5 PagesHow about prostitute? Although some people might think that prostitution is dirty job, prostitution is also one of the important jobs which are composing our society. Devaluation on prostitute recognition should be changed. This essay deals with reasons why prostitution should be allowed and what are the advantages of prostitution. First reason that prostitution should be legalized is for women’s right. As upper mentioned, prostitution is a kind of occupations. According to research among the women

Nucor Case Free Essays

NUCOR CASE In this analysis we use the Net present value to consider if Nucor should invest in the new technology called: thin slab minimill. NPV is really useful in order to make this kind of decision because it uses the concept of future cash value to evaluate whether the investment is worth, however the NPV is sometimes difficult to calculate because it is not always easy to estimate future cash flow. Considering the assumption I made in the first part of the spread sheet, the thin slab project doesn’t appear to be a wise investment for Nucor because the future cash flows at the present value are less than the initial cost of the investment. We will write a custom essay sample on Nucor Case or any similar topic only for you Order Now Comparing the NPV of the three different scenarios it is evident that the best option for Iverson is to continue whit the unmodernized process. The first consideration about to undertake the investment is based on particular assumptions about the future, if we change those the result of the decision could also change. Due to the fluctuation of the market is difficult to make the right assumptions and this is why to calculate the NPV is not easy. For instance if we changed the discount rate and we lower it below the IRR, the resulting NPV will be positive and this case to invest in the new technology could be a profitable decision. We can also change the steel price rate keeping the cost rate constant, if it is increased enough the NPV could result positive, at the same time if we reduce cost rate keeping the price rate constant we can find an equal result. Regarding the real option analysis if Nucor decides to wait it is unlikely that another will decide to make this kind of investment first. The follow strategy could be a wise decision for Nucor, because the NPV is slightly negative so the management could decide to undertake this investment in order to gain experience and subsequently use that experience for other plants so this initial price could generate future opportunities. How to cite Nucor Case, Essay examples

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Metabolic Processes Photosynthesis Essay Example

Metabolic Processes: Photosynthesis Essay Modified True/FalseIndicate whether the sentence or statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the sentence or statement true.____ 1. The organelle that is unique to eukaryotic photoautotrophs is the chromoplast. _____________________________ 2. Light energy is principally transferred by chlorophyll b. _____________________________ 3. When exposed to bright white light chlorophyll fluoresces green. _____________________________ 4. In general, photosynthesis rates are lower at lower oxygen concentrations. ____________________________________________ 5. The location of the H+ reservoir in the chloroplast is the intermembrane space. ___________________________________Multiple ChoiceIdentify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.____ 1. Of the following biological compounds, which one contains the element, nitrogen?a.fatty acidsd.starchb.sugare.proteinc.glycerol____ 2. An oxidation/reduction is best show n by which of the following? amino and carboxyl group form a peptide bondb.two small molecules chemically combine to form a large onec.a base reacts with an acid to form water and a saltd.electrons are transferred from one substance to anothere.a large molecule is broken into two smaller molecules____ 3. The activity of an enzyme can be altered by changing the pH of its surroundings slightly. This change in pH works bya.causing the enzyme to precipitateb.masking its active sitec.increasing the activation energy of the reactiond.breaking its peptide bondse.altering its three dimensional shape____ 4. Which of the following is not a cofactor or coenzyme?a.Zn2+d.Fe2+b.Mn2+e.NADP+c.NAD+____ 5. Which of the following statements concerning allosteric regulation is not true?a.Allosteric sites are usually located next to, but separate from, the active site.b.Alosterically controlled enzymes usually have quaternary structure.c.Activators tend to keep all the active sites available to the normal substrate.d.Allosteric inhibitors stabilize the inactive form of the enzyme.e.Allosteric regulators attach to their sites using weak bonds.____ 6. Which of the following processes most likely does not involve anaerobic conditions?a.yeast causing bread dough to riseb.bacteria working in an aeration tank at a sewage plantc.bacteria in the soil help in compostingd.alcohol is produced in fermentatione.sewage breaks down in a septic tank____ 7. In an investigation of the pigments in the leaves of a particular plant, one spot moved 8.0 cm from the origin, while the solvent front moved 10.0 cm. What would the Rf value of the pigment be?a.80.0d.1.25b.8.0e.0.8c.2.0____ 8. Photophosphorylation specifically refers to thea.synthesis of glucose via carbon fixationb.splitting water as a result of lightc.synthesis of ATP by photolysisd.reduction of NADPH by electron transporte.synthesis of ATP using light____ 9. During carbon fixation, which of the following is a product?a.ATPd.carbon dioxi deb.3-phosphoglyceratee.oxygenc.NADPH____ 10. The name of the process whereby a plant uses oxygen in light.a.transpirationd.photorespirationb.translocatione.photosynthesisc.photophosphorylationImagine you have five small glass jars that are sealed to the atmosphere. All the jars are filled with a bicarbonate solution (as a source of carbon dioxide) and an indicator. The differences between each jar are described below:Jar #1: Has a small fish.Jar #2: Has one small fish in addition to some aquatic plants.Jar #3: Has three small fish in addition to some aquatic plants.Jar #4: Has some aquatic plants.Jar #5: Has some aquatic plants, but the jar is completely surrounded by aluminum foil.The indicator shows you how much carbon dioxide is in each jar. The following table shows the relative amounts:Colour of pH indicator solutionRelative amount of carbon dioxideredhighgreenmedium (equivalent to atmosphere)bluelowThe following table shows the results of an experiment where the tubes were al lowed to stand under natural light for several hours.ObservationJar #1Jar #2Jar #3Jar #4Jar #5Starting colour of indicatorgreengreengreengreengreenFinal colour of indicatorredgreenredbluegreen____ 11. The following are statements regarding the above results:I. respiration is taking place in all five test tubesII. respiration is exceeding photosynthesis in Jar#3III. photosynthesis is occurring in Jar#5IV. the lowest concentration of carbon dioxide is found in Jar#2Which of the above statements are correct?a.II and IIId.II and IVb.I and IIe.III and IVc.I and IVOptional Multiple Choice The correct answer is indicated by a (*)1. Photoexcitation occurs whena. 2ADP + 2Pi 2 ATP on 2 cytochromesb. light releases electrons from double covalent bonds on chlorophyll ac. 2 H2O 4H+ + O2 + 4 electronsd. pallisade mesophylle. ultra-violet (UV)2. In a C3 plant most of the photosynthesis activity occurs in thea. bundle sheath cellsb. spongy mesophyllc. RUDP; 2PGAd. pallisade mesophylle. pyruvic a cid3. C4 plants fix CO2 onto ________; to form ______________.a. RUDP; 2PGAb. pyruvic acid; 2PGAc. PEP; oxaloacetic acidd. chlorophyll a (bulk); chlorophyll be. glucose, water4. C3 plants fix CO2 onto __________; to form ____________.a. PEP; oxaloacetic acidb. pyruvic acid; 2PGAc. RUDP; 2PGAd. Glycogen, pyruvatee. Alcohol, aspartame5. The antenna pigments includea. chlorophyll a (bulk); chlorophyll b (all)b. chlorophyll b (all); carotenoids (all)c. Xanthophylls, cyaninsd. chlorophyll a (bulk); chlorophyll b (all); carotenoidse. Glycine, methylglycol6. The light reaction PRIMARILY absorbs light from the visible spectrum that isa. ultra-violet (UV)b. violetc. redd. The matrixe. green7. The light reaction occursa. the thyakoid membraneb. in the matrixc. in the stromad. Granae. Vacuole8. The dark reaction occurs in thea. matrixb. thyakoid membranec. stromad. lammmellaee. pancreas9. In the following equation, the 6 O2 originated from the6 CO2 + 12 H2O -1 2 6O2 + C6H12O6 + 6 H2Oa. 6 CO2b. 12 H2Oc. 6 H2Od. sulphure. antimony10. In the following equation, the C6 on glucose originated from the6 CO2 + 12 H2O -1 2 6O2 + C6H12O6 + 6 H2Oa. 12 H2Ob. 6 CO2c. C6H12O6d. Sulfur gase. air11. 1 and 2 on the - are6 CO2 + 12 H2O -1 2 6O2 + C6H12O6 + 6 H2Oa. CO2, H2Ob. chlorophyll a and chlorophyll bc. light and chlorophylld. aspartame and proteine. DNA and chlorine12. The major end products of the LIGHT REACTION is (are)a. 4 e- + 4H+ + O2b. ATP, NADPH2c. 6O2, 6 H2Od. NADPHe. FAD+13. Carotenoids absorb light PRIMARILY from the _________ portion(s) of the visible spectrum.a. red, violetb. bluec. greend. blacke. yellow-orange14. Both the end products of the LIGHT REACTION are used in the:a. reduction of 2 PGAs to 2 PGALsb. oxidation of 2 PGAs to 2 PGALsc. fixation of CO2 on RUPd. Calvin cycle15. Both the end products of the light reaction are used in thea. conversion of PGAL to DHAP through a series of reactionsb. oxidation of NADPHc. conversion of RUDP to PGAL through a series of rea ctionsd. Cellular respiration16. Which condition below favours the highest rate of PHOTOSYNTHESIS? (select only one)(a) CO2 0.2% light 7000 1x temperature 20oC(b) CO2 0.2% light 7000 1x temperature 15oC(c) CO2 10 % light 7000 1x temperature 25oC17. Regardless of light intensity and temperature, the rate of photosynthesis will not increase when the CO2 concentration isa. below 0.2%b. above 0.03%c. above 0.2%d. up to 100%e. below 0.011%18. The rate of photosynthesis is observed by :a. counting the O2 bubbles given offb. collecting O2 gas from the reactionc. looking at the water producedd. both a and b are feasiblee. counting the number of sugars19. Photosystem II receives electrons froma. photolysis of waterb. 2 cytochromesc. NADPH2d. Mitochondriae. rubisco20. Photosystem II produces _______ for the dark reactiona. ATP onlyb. both ATP and NADPH2c. PGALd. Electronse. protons21. In Photosystem I, chloroplasts use light to producea. histamineb. CO2c. Carbond. Carbonic acide. NADPH22. Lig ht is one factor involved with the rate of photosynthesis. Two others area. temperature and CO2b. temperature and O2c. water and ozoned. sulphur concentration and aluminium ion concentratione. chlorine concentration and H ion concentration23. The oxygen released through photosynthesis is derived froma. CO2b. waterc. ATP24. Rank the events a to c from which occurs first to which occurs last. Select the event that comes last.a. P700 is oxidizedb. photophosphorylationc. P680 is oxidized25. Rank the events a to c from which occurs first to which occurs last. Select the event that comes first.a. photophosphorylationb. P680 is oxidizedc. P700 is oxidized26. During the operation of photosystem Ia. NADPH is reduced and P700 is reducedb. P680 is reduced along with ATPc. P700 is oxidized and NADP+ is reducedd. ATP is reducede. The chloroplast is excited27. The general accomplishment of the DARK REACTION is thea. synthesis of ATPb. synthesis of PGALc. reduction of CO2 by hydrogend. Production of sulphuric acid gase. The production a alanine28. When light is absorbed by photosystem IIa. P700 is oxidized and CO2 is liberatedb. P680 is oxidized and O2 is liberatedc. P680 is converted to P700d. When the sun stops shininge. When the asparate shuttle stopsOther multiple choice questions can be found at: and, questions1. Temperature and pH affect enzyme activity. As with all other reactions, enzyme-catalyzed reactions _________________________ in speed with an increase in temperature. However, as the temperature increases beyond a critical point, the protein structure begins to get disrupted , resulting in _________________________ and loss of enzyme function. Every enzyme has a(n) _________________________ temperature at which it works best and activity tends to decrease on either side of this temperature. Most human enzymes work best at around _________ ________________. Some enzymes require nonprotein _________________________, such as zinc and manganese ions. Other enzymes may require organic _________________________ such as NAD+ and NADP+. A variety of substances inhibit enzyme activity. ___________________________________ are so similar to the enzymes substrate that they are able to enter he enzymes active site and block the normal substrate from binding. This process is reversible and can be overcome be increasing the concentration of the enzymes substrate. Another class of inhibitors does not affect an enzyme at its active site, they are called ___________________________________ and their effect cannot be overcome by adding more substrate.2. In a general, overall comparison of the reactions that occur during cellular respiration and photosynthesis, it can be said that the main reactant in respiration is ____________________, while in photosynthesis it is ______________________________ and _________________________. In contr ast to this, the main products of cellular respiration are _________________________ and _________________________, while in photosynthesis the main product is ____________________ with an interesting waste product ____________________ that is very useful to many creatures on Earth. Cellular respiration is a process that ____________________ energy , while photosynthesis ____________________ energy.MatchingMatch each item with the correct statement below.a.ground stateg.photosystem Ib.excitationh.photosystem IIc.fluorescencei.noncyclic electron flowd.primary electron acceptorj.Z proteine.antenna complexk.photophosphorylationf.reaction centrel.cyclic electron flow____ 1. The release of energy as light as an electron returns to ground state.____ 2. The absorption of energy by an electron.____ 3. The lowest possible potential energy level of an electron.____ 4. Contains chlorophyll P680.____ 5. Transmembrane protein of chlorophyll a that absorbs light energy.____ 6. Contains chlorophyl l P700.____ 7. Web of chlorophyll molecules that transfers energy to a reaction centre.____ 8. Light-dependent formation of ATP.____ 9. Photon-energized electrons move to produce only ATP.____ 10. Protein that helps split water into hydrogen ions, oxygen and electrons.Short Answer1. Plants are the only important photosynthetic organisms. Comment on this statement.2. What are the roles of water and light in photosynthesis?3. Photosystem I usually converts most of the light energy it receives to ATP and NADPH by noncyclic electron flow. There are times when some of the energy is used by cyclic electron flow.a. What is cyclic electron flow?b. Why is it called cyclic?c. At what times does cyclic electron flow occur?4. Complete the following table to compare the various types of photosynthesis.C3C4CAMUsual areas were these plants are found.First enzyme to fix carbon dioxideName of molecule formed immediately following carbon dioxide fixation.Is there an energy cost associated with carbon dioxide fixation? (Y/N)5. Design an experiment to show whether sulphur dioxide, a gas produced during many industrial processes, has an effect on photosynthesis. Be sure to include a clear hypothesis.Essay1. You may have come into this course with the impression that plants photosynthesize during the day and respire at night. Based on what you have learned in this course comment on this impression.2. Compare and contrast C4 and CAM photosynthesis in terms of their abilities to counter the process known as photorespiration.Unit 1 Test Metabolic ProcessesAnswer Section according to government expectationsMODIFIED TRUE/FALSE1. ANS: F, chloroplast REF: C OBJ: 3.1LOC: MP1.052. ANS: F, chlorophyll a REF: K/U OBJ: 3.2LOC: MP1.013. ANS: F, red REF: K/U OBJ: 3.3LOC: MP1.014. ANS: F, higher oxygen concentrations REF: C OBJ: 3.5LOC: MP1.055. ANS: F, interior of the thylakoid REF: C OBJ: 3.6LOC: MP2.05MULTIPLE CHOICE1. ANS: E REF: K/U OBJ: 1.2 LOC: MP1.022. ANS: D REF: K/U OBJ: 1.3 LOC: MP1.0 43. ANS: E REF: K/U OBJ: 1.4 LOC: MP1.034. ANS: D REF: K/U OBJ: 1.4 LOC: MP1.035. ANS: A REF: K/U OBJ: 1.4 LOC: MP1.036. ANS: B REF: K/U OBJ: 2.1 LOC: MP1.067. ANS: E REF: I OBJ: 3.2 LOC: MP2.068. ANS: E REF: K/U OBJ: 3.3 LOC: MP1.059. ANS: B REF: K/U OBJ: 3.3 LOC: MP1.0510. ANS: D REF: K/U OBJ: 3.4 LOC: MP1.0611. ANS: B REF: I OBJ: 3.6 LOC: MP2.06OPTIONAL M.C. QUESTIONS:1b, 2d, 3c, 4c, 5d, 6c, 7a, 8c, 9b, 10b, 11c, 12b, 13b, 14a, 15c, 16a, 17c, 18d, 19a, 20a, 21e, 22a, 23b, 24a, 25b, 26c, 27b, 28bCOMPLETION1. ANS:increasedenaturationoptimal37?CcofactorscoenzymesCompetitive inhibitorsnon-competitive inhibitorsREF: K/U OBJ: 1.4 LOC: MP1.032. ANS:glucosecarbon dioxide/waterwater/carbon dioxidecarbon dioxide/waterwater/carbon dioxideglucoseoxygenreleasesstoresREF: K/U, C OBJ: 3.6 LOC: MP1.06, MP2.05MATCHING1. ANS: C REF: C OBJ: 3.3 LOC: MP1.062. ANS: B REF: C OBJ: 3.3 LOC: MP1.063. ANS: A REF: C OBJ: 3.3 LOC: MP1.064. ANS: H REF: C OBJ: 3.3 LOC: MP1.065. ANS: F REF: C OBJ: 3.3 LOC: MP1 .066. ANS: G REF: C OBJ: 3.3 LOC: MP1.067. ANS: E REF: C OBJ: 3.3 LOC: MP1.068. ANS: K REF: C OBJ: 3.3 LOC: MP1.069. ANS: L REF: C OBJ: 3.3 LOC: MP1.0610. ANS: J REF: C OBJ: 3.3 LOC: MP1.06SHORT ANSWER1. ANS:While plants may be the most visible photosynthetic organisms, they are not the only ones and probably not the most important ones. In addition to the higher plants, which are usually the most familiar with people, organisms such as algae, photosynthetic protists and cyanobacteria also carry out photosynthesis. Given the size of the oceans, the photosynthetic organisms that live in this environment probably have a huge effect on global oxygen and carbon dioxide levels.REF: MC OBJ: 3.1, 3.5 LOC: MP3.032. ANS:- Water is needed as a source of hydrogen ions and electrons which are used in reduction reactions.- Light is needed as a source of energy to excite electrons of chlorophyll, which results in the splitting of water to form oxygen and release the hydrogen ions and electrons me ntioned previously.REF: K/U OBJ: 3.3 LOC: MP1.053. ANS:a. In cyclic electron flow when photosystem I is struck by a photon with the correct energy, it will release electrons to the same carrier molecules as non-cyclic electron flow. These electrons move through a cytochrome system and cause hydrogen ions to move from the stroma across the thylakoid membrane to the inside of the thylakoid. The higher concentration of hydrogen ions inside the thylakoids can be used to make ATP. The chlorophyll molecule of PS I oxidizes the final electron carrier, gaining electrons to return to its reduced form.b. The term cyclic is used because the chlorophyll of PS I serves as both the electron donor and electron acceptor.c. Cyclic electron flow would appear to occur when reserves of NADP+ are low, which would imply that levels of NADPH are high. These means there will be a shortage of electron acceptors, which results in electrons being accepted by the cytochrome electron carrier system.4. ANS:C3C4C AMUsual areas were these plants are found.temperatetemperate to tropicalaridFirst enzyme to fix carbon dioxiderubiscoPEP carboxylasePEP carboxylaseName of molecule formed immediately following carbon dioxide fixation.3-phosphoglycerateoxaloacetateoxaloacetateIs there an energy cost associated with carbon dioxide fixation? (Y/N)NoYes, ATPYes, ATPREF: K/U, MC OBJ: 3.3, 3.4 LOC: MP1.05, MP3.035. ANS:Hypothesis: any clear statement indicating they understand the role of a hypothesis in framing the investigation.Controls: there should be some plants that will receive no treatment with sulphur dioxide, but otherwise are exposed to all the same conditions as the other plants.Replicates: there should be mention of repeating the experiment on several plants for both the treated and untreated group.Method: there should be some indication of how sulphur dioxide will be generated, how its application will be controlled and what will be measured to determine whether or not sulphur dioxide has an effect on photosynthesis or not.REF: I OBJ: 3.5 LOC: MP2.04ESSAY1. ANS:While it is true that plants photosynthesize during the day and respire at night it would be a mistake to assume that plants are this simple. Respiration is a process that continues on throughout the entire life of a plant, in other words it will occur both during the day and at night. Photosynthesis, on the other hand, having a requirement for light obviously can occur only when light is available. Many people choose to look at photosynthesis and respiration as opposite processes. In terms of the gases they consume and produce, this is true, but from a biochemical point of view the reactions are extremely different. While respiration consumes oxygen and produces carbon dioxide, photosynthesis does the opposite.At night, only respiration is occurring and so there is a net production of carbon dioxide gas. As the sun rises and the light intensity increases, photosynthesis increase to a point where carbon dioxide consumption by photosynthesis equals carbon dioxide production by respiration. As light intensity increases further, the consumption of carbon dioxide in photosynthesis exceeds the production in respiration and there is a net consumption of carbon dioxide. In addition, photosynthesis will now produce more oxygen than respiration requires leading to net production of oxygen.REF: K/U OBJ: 3.6 LOC: MP1.062. ANS:Photorespiration is the oxidation of ribulose bisphosphate by rubisco and oxygen in light to form glycolate, which upon subsequent metabolism releases carbon dioxide. It is seen as a wasteful process both in terms of the carbon dioxide lost that could have become photosynthetic product, and the energy used along the way in releasing the carbon dioxide. This is a process that typically occurs in C3 plants such as many deciduous trees. Two mechanisms have evolved in higher plants to counteract the process of respiration, they are C4 and CAM photosynthesis.C4 photosynthesis is one response some plants have evolved to the problem of photorespiration. Plants such a corn and sugar cane are examples of such plants. The enzyme that fixes carbon dioxide in these plants is PEP carboxylase in the mesophyll cells of the vascular bundles, and the first product formed is oxaloacetate, a four carbon compound. PEP carboxylase has no oxygenase function as rubisco has so there is no initial problem with photorespiration. The oxaloacetate is converted to malate and shuttled into the bundle sheath cells where it is decarboxylated to pyruvate with the release of carbon dioxide which can now be fixed by rubisco which is present in these cells. However, the oxygen concentration in these cells is very low so photorespiration has been effectively eliminated but at the expense of some ATP. C4 represents a spatial separation of photosynthesis.CAM stands for crassulacean acid metabolism and is so named because it was first discovered in members of the plant family known as a the Cras sulacea (e.g., cacti, pineapples, aloe). CAM is a way that some plants have evolved to avoid the problem of photorespiration. In this process the stomata of the plants are open during the night when it is cooler and less water can be lost. Carbon dioxide can enter, but the usual method of fixing the carbon, by using the energy produced in the light-dependent reactions obviously is not available. PEP carboxylase is used to fix carbon dioxide into organic acids which are stored in the vacuoles of the mesophyll cells. During the day, when the stomata are closed, the organic acids are decarboxylated and the carbon dioxide that is released is fixed by rubisco in the Calvin cycle which is located in the bundle sheath cells. There is a cost of some ATP in the process. CAM represents a temporal separation of photosynthesis.

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Energy efficiency and Social Housing Essay Example

Energy efficiency and Social Housing Essay Example Energy efficiency and Social Housing Essay Energy efficiency and Social Housing Essay Energy efficiency and Social Housing: an probe into Government policy and its executionWord Count10036AbstractionThis thesis examines the current Government statute law refering energy efficiency and the usage of renewable energy resources in the societal lodging sector. The local governments of Croydon, Lambeth, Sutton and Merton are considered as instance survey illustrations of the nature of the undergoing work of local governments.A reappraisal of relevant background literature is carried out to determine what has been done over the last two decennaries refering energy efficiency, and whether the current state of affairs shows an betterment. Academic studies into conditions of societal lodging, such as fuel poorness, are reviewed, along with research into the advancement and effectivity of strategies already employed in the countries of Merton, Lambeth, Croydon, and Sutton. Further to this, an appraisal is made on the types of renewable energy resources available such as edifice stuffs and whether they are expeditiously employed within industries associating to the building and direction of the societal lodging sector.A questionnaire study is used to set up the attitudes and cognition of the populace in societal lodging towards energy efficiency in the place. This helps to foreground the countries where authorities policies, and the actions of the Local Authority, can better. A 2nd questionnaire is conducted on Registered Social Landlords refering the belongingss they rent.It is concluded that in the four boroughs there is a important degree of public consciousness refering energy efficiency. However, this consciousnes s is set within the context of other societal jobs such as wellness and offense, which people prioritise over the environment. Social lodging stock is non up to standard and about half is non set to run into the Decent Homes Standard by 2010. It is established that a significant investing of resources is needed if there is traveling to be any dramatic alteration over the following 10 old ages.ContentssAbstractionContentssChapter 1 Introduction1.0 Introduction1.1 Definition of the subject1.2 Rationale1.3 Key inquiries1.4 Purposes and AimsChapter 2 Research Methodology2.0 Research Methodology2.1 Literature Review2.2 Questionnaire studyChapter 3 Literature Review3.0 The Government’s place: so and now3.1 Public Awareness3.2 Current Schemes3.3 Other Policies3.4 Case Studies: Croydon, Lambeth, Merton, and Sutton3.5 Natural Resources/Recycling3.6 Sustainable Populating3.7 DecisionChapter 44.0 Questionnaire design4.1 Questionnaire analysisChapter 5 Presentation and treatment of conse quences5.0 Presentation of consequences5.1 EvaluationChapter 6 Decision6.0 Decision6.1 Restrictions of survey6.2 Recommendations for farther researchMentionsBibliographyAppendixChapter 1. Introduction1.0 IntroductionOver the last 10 old ages at that place has been turning force per unit area upon the authorities to follow environmentally friendly policies while still seeking to run into the demand for new lodging and an addition in place ownership. Residential edifices account for merely under a 3rd of the entire energy used in many developed states. ( Elliott 2003: 81 ) . Energy efficiency strategies have helped to cut down the sum of energy needed to heat the mean place, yet initiatives to cut down the environmental impact of homes such as the usage of renewable building stuffs still have possible for farther development.The work of Local Authorities is limited due to fiscal restraints and the demand to equilibrate environmental concerns with other jobs which arise in communitie s such as offense and homelessness. However, recent old ages have shown an addition in cosmopolitan engagement towards energy economy, with council’s pronunciamentos including long-run purposes towards cut downing emanations while promoting members of the populace to go actively involved.1.1 Definition of the TopicThe subject of this work is to look into what energy salvaging strategies have been initiated by the authorities, and what steps for energy efficiency are in topographic point for the boroughs of Croydon, Lambeth, Merton, and Surrey, which form portion of the South West London Housing Partnership.1.2 RationaleHome energy efficiency betterment is something that many people aspire to make, but non as many people realise that non a batch of money is needed to make it. Energy efficiency can intend recycling and reusing stuffs, and purchasing different visible radiation bulbs which cost merely a few lbs more. On the other manus, people are afraid to take stairss such as insularity and excess glazing because of the cost required by unquotable companies. For this ground more information demands to be made public about the true nature of some improvements’ such as PVC U dual glazing, where eight metric tons of oil is needed to do one metric ton of PVC U.This survey specifically looks into status of societal lodging and the attitudes of societal lodging renters. It is realised that this sector is under force per unit area from other societal jobs, plus in some instances, linguistic communication barriers. Thus excess attempt demands to be made on the portion of administrations to make people who could profit from energy salvaging strategies such as Staywarm.Chapter 2. Research Methodology2.0 Research MethodologyThe chief organic structure of research for this thesis is secondary, presented in the signifier of a literature reappraisal, while 2 questionnaire studies constitute the smaller organic structure of primary research.2.1 Literature Revi ewIn order to set up the advancement made refering energy efficiency both in the UK as a whole and in London boroughs a elaborate literature reappraisal is carried out. Internet beginnings are used in order to guarantee that information is as up to day of the month as possible, and academic diaries and books are used to give a relevant background.2.2 Questionnaire studyIn the first case it was intended to put to death a door to door study in order to acquire an improved response rate and include those with hapless reading or composing accomplishments, and moreover, to guarantee that written linguistic communication barriers were overcome so that cultural communities could be certain to be included. However, concern for personal safety meant another attack had to be used. It was eventually decided to inquire people in the street in four assorted locations in South West London to take the questionnaire place, make full it in, and return in the Sae provided.The first questionnaire was to be conducted on 60 registered Social Landlords 15 from each borough of Merton, Croydon, Sutton, and Lambeth, who live in the country from which they rent. The local authorization was contacted straight and asked if they could post on a transcript of the study to 15 landlords who were registered with them. There was a variable response rate: 8 from Lambeth ; 6 from Croydon ; 9 from Merton ; and 10 from Sutton.For the 2nd questionnaire, it was made clear on passing out that respondents should merely make full in and return if they were populating in societal lodging either rented from the council or from an LHA, or probationary. 160 of the first questionnaires were handed out in entire: 40 in Lambeth during the eventide first-come-first-serve hr ; 40 in Merton in the first-come-first-serve hr ; 40 in Croydon outside the train station ; and 40 in Sutton. It was made clear on the questionnaire that even if the respondent merely understood portion of it that they should make full i n what they could and still direct it back. Obviously, this method of trying fails to include those who are housebound and others with hapless reading and composing accomplishments nevertheless, all methods of trying were expected to extinguish some people, go forthing this method looking to be the most dependable.The questionnaires were handed out to people who covered a broad scope of age and ethnicity. Peoples were foremost asked if they lived in London and so asked if they would be happy to make full out the questionnaire and station it back. The return rate was good, with 60 of the 150 questionnaires being returned right by people populating in societal lodging. A larger per centum came back from Sutton and the smallest was Croydon, with merely 7. In entire 3 had been insufficiently/incorrectly filled in and were eliminated from the survey. Although the response rate was good it still left this survey with a little sample significance that its ability to stand for these count ries of London was questionable. Therefore, it was decided that the questionnaire study should be used as a pilot survey.Chapter 3 Literature Review3.0 The Government’s place: so and nowScientific apprehension and public consciousness of the effects of energy usage on the environment has grown well during the last two decennaries. In 1977 the Labour Government recognised that the attitude of the UK to energy policy was insular’ ( Woodliffe 1991: 11 ) , with resources being the chief concern. Michael Ball, in his 1988 publication commented that in the UK which has a high population denseness and a authorities policy that promotes private place having -the attending paid to the conditions of societal lodging had been minimum over the last few decennaries compared to other European states. ( Ball et al 1988: 54 ) .The 1890ss saw the beginning of a tendency where attending had to be paid to societal lodging. Work by faculty members such as Anne Power’sEstates on th e Edgeuncover an penetration into the farinaceous urban pragmatism which was most interior cities’ incubus. This socio-political revolution took topographic point alongside a development concern about clime alteration.In 1991 it was postulated that CO2 was responsible for more than half of planetary heating, and fossil-fuel combustion doing about three quarters of all CO2 emanations. ( Woodliffe 1991: 111 ) . Now the effects of high C emanations have been realised the authorities has produced green policies which have set marks to cut down emanations by 15 % and upwards over the following few old ages. However, these betterments have had to be set within the wider context of other societal jobs, such as offense and homelessness.In the last decennary it has been recognised that energy preservation at the point of usage is the most effectual manner of cut downing the sum of power used, instead than roll uping emanations. ( Elliott 2003: 80 ) . Today, the consumer is encouraged to play an active function in energy efficiency within the place such as utilizing energy-saving contraptions and visible radiation bulbs. The societal lodging sector has great possible range for cut downing the sum of energy used and the sum of energy conserved. This is because local governments are responsible for suiting out new and bing places with energy-efficient cardinal heating systems, insularity, and dual glazing. By comparing, the private place proprietor may non remain in their present place for a sufficient length of clip, or non be able to afford to put in or replace heating systems. Thus, Local Authorities have a immense portion to play non merely in fiting places with energy efficient means, but besides through raising public consciousness of how best to utilize those agencies, and to promote the construct of energy salvaging to be seen as a sympathetic and popular challenge.Of the 1000000s of dwellers of London 0.3 million live in societal lodging, which is the sm allest per centum. However, despite being the smallest per centum, the societal sector, with the action of local governments has the most possible to advance and originate energy salvaging lodging. Merely last autumn the Government published a new White Paper, called Strong and Comfortable Communities, ’ which aimed to reenforce the power of local governments. Furthermore, it included a simplification of the public presentation model in order to undertake cross cutting issues such as clime alteration at a local level.’ ( hypertext transfer protocol: // mode=view A ; news_id+748 ) .Yet alterations in lodging term of office have influenced the effects of authorities policy upon emanations. The following tabular array shows the addition in the Numberss of homes in the societal and private sector between 1981 and 2003.19812003Number of homes ( 1000000s )No. of homes ( 1000000s )Owner Occupied1218Social Sector 74.5In the societal sector the figure of homes fell from1981 by a one-fourth to under 5 million in 2003. ( Labour Force Survey 2005 ) , with 19 per cent of families being rented from societal landlords ( a Council, Housing Association or Registered Social Landlord ) and 12 per cent rented from a private proprietor. ( Census 2001 ) . The domestic sector has been targeted with strategies for energy efficiency being put into pattern by Local Authorities on a countrywide footing. However, with worsening figures for societal sector places it is hard for local governments to do contact with adequate occupants in the country and rede them on how to salvage energy. Local governments presently measure the energy efficiency of their lodging stock through HECA Audits. A broad assortment of steps are used: National Home Energy Rating ( NHER ) , Standard Assessment Procedure ( SAP ) , and Starpoint. A 1998 study by LPAC, who conduct regular borough questionnaires, found that energy efficiency had been measured in 371,963 bel ongingss with 220,551 being under local authorization control. hypertext transfer protocol: // to the LHO the lodging for low-income households is amongst the most inefficient:heating utilizing electric fires at normal electricity rates may be three times every bit expensive as gas cardinal warming. Yet low income households spend less on warming, on norm, than all houses, bespeaking that they live at colder temperature degrees. Investing in upgrading lodging to be to the full insulated, every bit good as put ining energy efficient heating systems, will both cut entire costs and cut down energy usage.(Ibid) .Other surveies have shown that people would instead be in debt due to their fuel measures than be cold:We unrecorded hebdomad by hebdomad now. No vacations or new trappings, anything like that. We shrug our shoulders. The measure has to be paid, and that’s that.’ ( Dave, center aged twosom e ) . ( Report on the Warm Homes Project by Heyman et Al: 2005: 262 ) .Academic defense mechanism of lodging policy has said that it recognises that conditions such as overcrowding ; lodging in disrepair ; hapless indoor environmental quality, are associated with assorted wellness conditions, including respiratory infections, asthma, lead toxic condition, hurts, and mental health.’ ( Krieger, 2002: 758 ) . However, Conway, in her 2000 survey, highlighted that in the UK, the 20th century lodging policy focal point has been bit by bit floating off from covering with hapless quality lodging towards other issues such as ownership and direction, entree and cost. ( Conway, 2000: 92 ) . Over the last few old ages the issue of energy economy has non been so high on the public wellness docket as the allotment of lodging itself in order to assist the homeless and the hapless. In 2004 the authorities introduced The White Paper, which allowed the public influence over which issues should be raised to the top of the public wellness docket. Subsequent issues which have been repeatedly raised and been proven to be demanding of policy enforcement include the attention for the aged, and more specifically, fuel proviso for aged individuals to cut down the Numberss of extra winter deceases. For illustration, National Energy Action promotes research enterprises into cut downing the effects of fuel poorness on wellness as a cardinal component of their public wellness docket. ( National Energy Action 2006: 2 ) . They are peculiarly concerned with the wellness of aged people who can non afford to heat their ain placesA study printed by EPN magazine, conducted by British Gas, found that dwellers of London are less likely to conserve energy than anyplace else in the UK, with Knowsley in the North West demoing a higher degree of energy efficiency. ( hypertext transfer protocol: // ) . However, London appears to be on a par with, or in front of, northern enterp rises for advancing energy efficiency. For illustration, an article in theGuardian -that consults the Energy Saving Trust ; the Carbon Trust ; the Local Government Association ; and the Improvement and Development Agency put the Greater London authorization at the top of a list of councils advancing clime alteration as portion of their policy docket. ( hypertext transfer protocol: // change/story/html ) . The boroughs of Merton, Sutton, and Croydon were besides listed as being in the top 20.3.1 Public AwarenessThe National Energy Association has had a London office runing since 1992. The two current major undertakings are REECH Gaining energy efficient communities and places, and OPEN ( Older People’s Energy Needs ) .REECH is a partnership between NEA and British Gas, taking to supply energy efficiency betterments specifically heating and insularity to members of cultural communities. ( hypertext transfer protocol: // g_with..Local_authorities/London ) . So far REECH has extended to London, Bradford, Rochdale, Oldham, West Midlands, and Cardiff. The undertaking focuses on get the better ofing linguistic communication and cultural differences so that energy efficiency advice can be communicated efficaciously. Furthermore, it recognises that people who are already on low incomes are extremely vulnerable without entree to money salvaging betterments and are losing out on their entitlements.’ (Ibid ) .Table 1 shows the services offered by REECH and the effects for cultural communities:Servicess provided by REECHExample of results for cultural communities___________________________________________________________________Tailored energy consciousness preparation for community Allows own-language energy workers advice to be delivered to a big figure of peopleAccess to liberate energy efficiency measuresImproved insularity taking to take down fuel measuresAccess to liberate benefits wellness chequ e Maximisations of income raising many homeowners out of fuel poornessSupport for energy efficiency programmes Pulling on expertness of REECH undertaking coordinators providesdrift for local energy actionAccess to new energy efficiency stuff Homeowners are made cognizant of the latest benefits and new strategiesinitiated by fuel providersInformation on cardinal energy contacts Raising consciousness of other administrations allows reproductionOf successful undertakings. The work ofNEA is frequently based on presentation undertakings thatcan so be implemented on wider graduated tableEntree to REECH newssheet Community workers gain new thoughts for actionincreasing involvement in the benefits for occupants( Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: // )OpenThis undertaking is designed to help older people populating in London who have mental wellness jobs and/or the beginnings of dementedness.3.2 Current Energy Efficient SchemesGovernmentWarm FrontWarm Front is the Governme nt’s main grant-funded programme for undertaking fuel poorness. Initially launched as the Home Energy Efficiency Scheme in June 2000 Warm Front has aided over 140,000 families over the last twelvemonth. ( hypertext transfer protocol: // ) . Warm Front offers on-line advice and grants to consumers, advancing a guaranteed decrease in energy measures.The Warm Front grant of ?2,700 or ?4,000 provides a bundle of insularity and warming tailored to each belongings. These steps include insularity, heating systems, and advice. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //’ )The Decent Homes StandardDecided in 2000, the Decent Homes Standard is the duty of the authorities to do certain that all societal lodging meets a good criterion by 2010. This ’decent’ criterion of place has been identified as one which is air current and conditions tight, warm and has modern facilities.’ ( hypertext transfer protocol: // ) . In June 2006 the Thermal Comfort Criteria required efficient warming to be as follows: Any gas or oil programmable cardinal warming Electric storage warmers Warm air systems Underfloor systems Programmable LPG/solid fuel cardinal warming Similarly efficient heating systems which are developed in the hereafter Loft insularity ( higher specification for homes heated by electric storage warmers ) . (Ibid)The Housing Act 2004: Summary of the Main CommissariatsThe Housing Act 2004 is a cardinal piece of statute law that will protect the most vulnerable in society and assist make a fairer and better lodging market. It will besides beef up the Government s thrust to run into its 2010 nice places mark. Measures relevant to this survey include:i‚Â ·New Housing Health and Safety Rating Systemi‚Â ·Increasing direction powers of Local governments hypertext transfer protocol: // CorporationThe Housing Corporation, the national Government bureau that financially supports new low-cost lodging, is set to do the biggest individual investing in energy-efficient places so far in its development programs, which aim to salvage 40,000 metric tons of CO2 per twenty-four hours and 2.5 million liters of H2O each twenty-four hours. ( hypertext transfer protocol: // ) . The Corporation provinces that in the old ages 2008-10 it will nece ssitate all developments to make Level 3 of their new codification their highest lower limit criterions for C emanations and H2O ingestion so far. (Ibid ) .3.3 Other PoliciesStay WarmEntirely designed for the over-60s, StayWarm offers you complete peace of head. Once you’ve joined you pay a fixed monetary value for all your energy* by monthly Direct Debit. The sum you pay is based on the figure of people who live in your place and the figure of sleeping rooms it has. We guarantee that every bit long as you remain with StayWarm, the monetary value you pay will be fixed for 12 months from when you sign up. Entirely for the over-60s One fixed regular monthly Direct Debit payment Monetary values guaranteed for 12 months Complete peace of head – no unexpected measures hypertext transfer protocol: // Efficiency CommitmentThe gas and electricity Regulator Ofgem is responsible for pull offing an Energy Efficiency Commitment ( EEC ) , where electricity and gas providers are obliged to accomplish marks in domestic energy efficiency. DEFRA has described the benefits of the EEC as therefore:The EEC contributes to the Climate Change Programme by cutting nursery gas emanations. At least 50 % of energy nest eggs must be focussed on a precedence group of low-income consumers in reception of certain benefits and revenue enhancement credits/pension recognition. So it is expected that the EEC will besides lend to the obliteration of fuel poverty.’ ( hypertext transfer protocol: // ) .The first stage of the EEC ran from 1 April 2002 to 31 March 2005 and is expected to salvage 0.37 MtC yearly by 2010, with the 2nd stage running from 1 April 2005 to 31 March 2008 and necessita ting about double the degree of activity.Solar For LondonSolar for London is actively involved in assisting lodging suppliers to put up solar energy for big developments around London. ( hypertext transfer protocol: // ) . The administration besides works with London boroughs to raise and procure support for the solar undertakings.The Nottingham DeclarationIn an attempt to cut down C emanations Local Governments have signed up to the Nottingham Declaration on Climate Change. Over 100 governments have signed up to hold with the undermentioned judicial admissions: Admiting that clime alteration is go oning Accepting that clime alteration will precipitate great alteration on people, topographic points, economic system, society, and environment. Meeting emanations marks Raising public consciousness Working with cardinal authorities to assist the bringing of the UK Climate Change Programme Invest in partnership Record advancement and publish consequences (Ibid ) .Social Housing Brief 2.3.4 Case StudiesMertonEstablished originally as a agency to cut down the cost of energy measures for new concerns, the Merton Rule is now recognised as lending to the decrease of planetary heating. ( hypertext transfer protocol: // ) . This policy straight affects new development: where non-residential developments above a threshold of 1,00 sqm will include renewable energy production equipment to supply at least 10 % of predicted energy requirements.’ (Ibid ) .So effectual is the Merton Rule, non merely in its 10 % decrease, but besides in its publicity of renewable and sustainable stuffs, that it has been adopted by 80 other local governments in the UK. (Ibid ) .CroydonCroydon has followed Merton’s regulation, taking to significantly cut down emanations from its domestic sector. Green enterprises appear to hold been successful so far with the borough winning greenest place of the year’ in the Green Guardian award s.LambethThis country of London has the 5th highest population denseness of all countries, with 24,000 people on the lodging waiting list. Half of those people have kids. Social Housing includes many different types of edifice such as big Victorian and Georgian edifices in Kennington, little workers bungalows in Clapham, and estates. ( Lambeth Community Strategy 2004-15. Lambeth First: 12 ) .The quality of lodging is below criterion, with 43 % of the council’s places non run intoing the Decent Homes Standard. Obviously, much energy is lost through hapless insularity, constructing cloth that is in disrepair, and heating systems which are old and inefficient. In order to seek and get the better of these jobs the council aims to: Promote environmental consciousness and duty Extend scope of recycling installations, while promoting decrease and reuse Promote chances in local environment economic systems, with accent on entry-level occupations. Guaranting that future building will supply places which have better energy efficiency, usage sustainable stuffs, and last thirster. (Ibid) .Lambeth’s Local Authority Website has been successful in advancing their new lodging scheme, supplying elaborate information on energy salvaging with contact information for council members. The site, improved from its former province by luck cooky an online concern development company was named as the best council web site in England by the Society of Public Information Networks in 2006.Practical enterprises include a regeneration of a community heating web on the William Bonney estate. The Energy Saving Trust has given a Community Energy grant of ?10,000. Research is presently undergoing into uniting two boiler houses into one, utilizing energy from a combined heat and waste energy works, providing 8,777 dwellings.. ( hypertext transfer protocol: // mode=listing A ; audtype=2 A ; casecat=114 ) .SuttonTable 2 shows a relevant subdivision of The Sutton Housing Strategy in execution until 2008Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: // is documented that Sutton Council proposes to better place energy preservation and consciousness in the private sector through the proviso of grants. For the societal sector, nevertheless, this is still under reappraisal. The undertakings being implemented include grants and developing for voluntary bureaus in order to help those in fuel poorness and who could profit from energy salvaging strategies.Over the last few old ages Sutton’s lodging scheme has been monitored through a series of studies the last being in 2002. The action program for 2002 included energy efficiency. However, since so important action in the societal sector has involved anti-social behavior ; regeneration ; and sheltered lodging, with an accent on accomplishing low-cost lodging with fairer rents. Home energy efficiency and fuel poorness rated 7 out of 10 on the ran king of Local Importance and it seems that marks for place energy efficiency are being set for 2010, which is the government’s mark for the Decent Homes Standard. It is clear that Sutton’s lodging scheme is set within the context of authorities policy. For case, it is mentioned that work has been put into accomplishing the guidelines set by the government’s Sustainable Communities: edifice for the future’ programme, which sets about bettering life conditions, and advancing regeneration, while working towards sustainable and low-cost life. However, this means that environmental issues, although being topographic point on the docket, are taking more of a backseat behind the more urgent societal issues such as offense and homelessness.Sutton, possibly more than any other Local Authority under treatment this paper, is enduring from a deficiency of fiscal resources and investing. There is a 76 million lb backlog of fixs to Council places, with ?47M needed for plants over the following 10 old ages. ( http: // ) . It is therefore hard for this borough to prosecute any extravagant or extremist agencies of reform for energy efficiency alternatively, they are trusting on the work of voluntary bureaus, and re-launching the energy efficiency strategy which began in 2000.However, it is exactly these standards which interested the charity Peabody ( for London’s less comfortable citizens ) to put in a multi million lb sustainable development. Bedzed, in Beddington, is an independent mix of high-density lodging and low environmental impact. 82 places have been provided, with 15 designated for societal lodging. A low proportion, but a proportion however.3.5 Natural Resources/ RecyclingFig 1. Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: // 1 utilizations consequences from statistics gathered in 2005, and shows London as holding the least figure of sites from which to bring forth renewable energy. This, to a certain extent is to be expected due to the deficiency of suited sites such as unfastened land exposed to the air current. However, the sum of other biofuels generated is proportionate to that of other parts in the state, as illustrated in figure 6.Fig 2. Sum of energy generated by part: 2005. Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: // largest landfill site in Greater London at Rainham will be full in less than five old ages. Alternate methods will progressively be used for waste direction including cut downing rubbish at beginning ( for illustration by utilizing less packaging ) , recycling, composting and incineration. New methods of waste direction, such as bring forthing energy from waste, will besides necessitate to be considere

Sunday, March 1, 2020

The Cooperative Principle in Conversation

The Cooperative Principle in Conversation In conversation analysis, the cooperative principle is the assumption that participants in a conversation normally attempt to be informative, truthful, relevant, and clear. The concept of the cooperative principle was introduced by philosopher H. Paul Grice in his article Logic and Conversation (Syntax and Semantics, 1975). In that article, Grice argued that talk exchanges arent merely a succession of disconnected remarks, and would not be rational if they did. They are characteristically, to some degree at least, cooperative efforts; and each participant recognizes in them, to some extent, a common purpose or set of purposes, or at least a mutually accepted direction.   Examples and Observations We might then formulate a rough general principle which participants will be expected (ceteris paribus) to observe, namely: Make your conversational contribution such as is required, at the stage at which it occurs, by the accepted purpose or direction of the talk exchange in which you are engaged. One might label this the Cooperative Principle.  (Paul Grice, Logic and Conversation, 1975. Reprinted in Studies in the Way of Words. Harvard University  Press, 1989)[T]he  sum and substance of the Cooperative  Principle might be put this way: Do whatever is necessary to achieve the purpose of your talk; dont do anything that will frustrate that purpose. (Aloysius Martinich,  Communication and Reference.  Walter de Gruyter, 1984) Grice's Conversational Maxims [Paul] Grice fleshed out the cooperative principle in four conversational maxims, which are commandments that people tacitly follow (or should follow) to further the conversation efficiently: Quantity: Say no less than the conversation requires.Say no more than the conversation requires. Quality: Dont say what you believe to be false.Dont say things for which you lack evidence. Manner: Dont be obscure.Dont be ambiguous.Be brief.Be orderly. Relevance: Be relevant. People undoubtedly can be tight-lipped, long-winded, mendacious, cavalier, obscure, ambiguous, verbose, rambling, or off-topic. But on closer examination they are far less so than they could be, given the possibilities. . . . Because human hearers can count on some degree of adherence to the maxims, they can read between the lines, weed out unintended ambiguities, and connect the dots when they listen and read. (Steven Pinker, The Stuff of Thought. Viking, 2007) Cooperation vs. Agreeableness We need to make a distinction between communicatively cooperative and socially cooperative . . ..  The Cooperative Principle is  not about being positive and socially smooth, or agreeable. It is a presumption that when people speak, they intend and expect that they will communicate by doing so, and that the hearer will help at making this happen. When two people quarrel or have a disagreement, the Cooperative Principle still holds, even though the speakers may not be doing anything positive or cooperative. . . . Even if individuals are aggressive, self-serving, egotistic, and so on, and not quite focusing on the other participants of the interaction, they cant have spoken at all to someone else without expecting that something would come out of it, that there would be some result, and that the other person/s was/were engaged with them. That is what the Cooperative Principle is all about, and it certainly does have to continue to be considered as the main driving force in communic ation. (Istvan Kecskes,  Intercultural Pragmatics. Oxford University Press,  2014) Jack Reacher's Telephone Conversation The operator answered  and I asked for Shoemaker  and I got transferred, maybe elsewhere in the building, or the country, or the world, and after a bunch of clicks  and hisses and some long minutes of dead air Shoemaker came on the line and said Yes? This is Jack Reacher, I said. Where are you? Dont you have all kinds of automatic machines to tell you that? Yes, he said. Youre in Seattle, on a pay phone  down by the fish market. But we prefer it when people volunteer the information themselves. We find that makes the subsequent conversation go better. Because theyre already cooperating. Theyre invested. In what? The conversation. Are we having a conversation? Not really. (Lee Child, Personal.  Delacorte Press, 2014) The Lighter Side of the Cooperative Principle Sheldon Cooper: Ive been giving the matter some thought, and I think Id be willing to be a house pet to a race of superintelligent aliens.​ Leonard Hofstadter: Interesting.​ Sheldon Cooper: Ask me why?​ Leonard Hofstadter: Do I have to?​ Sheldon Cooper: Of course. Thats how you move a conversation forward. (Jim Parsons and  Johnny Galecki, The Financial Permeability. The Big Bang Theory, 2009)

Friday, February 14, 2020

Human resources Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 7

Human resources - Essay Example Recruitment or employment is defined as a method of attracting individuals towards a vacant position in a company. When a post or job exists, employment is initiated (Billsberry, 2008). Selection is a method of engaging suitable person for a correct job or position at a correct time at an appropriate cost. The process of selection is followed by the recruitment process (Dale, 2003). There are various types of decision which are taken by the managers of Tesco Plc before the process of recruitment, which includes initially thinking about candidates from inside the division. Then they decide to consider the applicants from the University or college who shows their concern in the job. If the positions still remains unfilled then they consider selecting candidate from various sources beyond the University. Other decisions include job analysis, job depiction, and the selection criteria decided by the company (Yu and Cable, 2013). There are various recruitment approaches which are adopted by the companies as a part of their recruitment exercise. The two types of approaches are rational and processual approach of employment. Rational approaches are based on the grounds of selecting the most appropriate candidate in relation to their current and potential competencies. It identifies the abilities required to carry out a job in a proper way than just focusing on the personal characteristics (Leighton and Proctor, 2006). Processual approach involves several processes such as preparing job description, making advertisement of the vacancy, managing responses, arranging and conducting interviews, and making final decisions before selecting the candidate (O’Meara, 2013). According to Torrington et al. (2014), although rational approaches provides the organisations to customise their recruitment and selection processes in accordance with their individual requirements, processual approaches are more commonly use d because of an all